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COLOURS USED shown in dark blue
#1 - Alizarin Crimson 
#2 - French Ultramarine
#3 - Winsor Blue
#4 - CeruleanBlue
#5 - Raw Sienna
#6 - Light Red
#7 - Burnt Umber
#8 - Naples Yellow
#9 - Winsor Yellow
#10 - Neutral Tint

[WF] - Warm Feathers = #6+ #2 (weak strength)
[MG] - Medium Green = #9+ #2+ #4 (med strength)


cw refers to the term "charge with" meaning to introduce a colour into a still wet colour.(Wet-in-wet)
sm refers to the term "smallest amount"

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Swans at Rest

Detail of the Swans only, showing no background reeds.

Standard Notes:
Planning the painting: This is very important!
First read through all the notes - mentally paint the picture before proceeding - analyse the source picture above - and PLEASE be aware of the colour mixes you are about to apply to each area, and the order in which they are applied, try visualising the result. Will the brush you are about to use carry enough colour - have you mixed enough colour - is the mix too strong or too weak? Try it out on your - trial pad!

Application of washes.
This should be quick using as few strokes as possible to cover any area being worked on. A minimal amount of brush-strokes equals greater purity and translucency of colour. Too much dabbing and scrubbing when applying the colour kills its freshness.

Basic Mixing Method.
More water in the wash gives a pale or weak wash, more colour produces a stronger wash. Most mixes require only two colours, one will be darker than the other. Mix sufficient quantity of the lighter colour and just keep adding small quantities of the darker colour until you feel happy with it, keep checking your progress on your trial pad.

1 Shadows on the Swans:

First mix the required amount of colour,
A medium to pale strength wash of #3Winsor Blue, is used.
Shadows on the back indicate the roundness of the wing, and raised feathers.The sharp shadows on the tail and neck are cast by the wing, head and neck and not softened

2 Application:
Tilt your board at just a medium angle.
Start applying the Winsor Blue, with a number 8 brush, and use a similar brush with just clean water to soften the edges of each stroke, study the large picture as a guide. Where the shadows are cast by the head or neck the shadows are not softened,

3 warm coloured feathers:
A pale strength wash of [WF] Light Red #6 and the smallest amount of Ultramarine #2
As you can see from the picture there is not much of this colour on the swans but it does add a touch of warmth and solidity to the birds. Study the large picture as a guide notice the broken type of application which helps to give texture I call this application "Dabble & Splash" - first dabble the colour on and then while it is still wet add a splash of clean water which weakens the colour and gives all the small dabs of colour an edge.

4 the beaks:
Mix a pale strength wash of Winsor Yellow add a touch of Light Red for the base colour..
Also mix a small amount of Light Red and add a touch of Crimson Alizarin as a medium strength mix, for the secondary colour.
First apply the base colour and while it is still wet introduce or
cw the secondary colour so that it just runs off the brush into the beak's base colour. When this is dry use Neutral Tint for the dark parts apply with a sharp pointed brush.
5 the nest grass:
Mix a wash of [MG] and apply to suit your painting's requirements giving extra strength to the detail as necessary, study the large picture as a guide.



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