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COLOURS USED shown in dark blue
#1 - Alizarin Crimson 
#2 - French Ultramarine
#3 - Winsor Blue
#4 - CeruleanBlue
#5 - Raw Sienna
#6 - Light Red
#7 - Burnt Umber
#8 - Naples Yellow
#9 - Winsor Yellow
#10 - Neutral Tint

[LB] - Light Brown = #6+ #2 (medium strength)
[LG] - Light Green = #9+ #2 (medium strength)


cw refers to the term "charge with" meaning to introduce a colour into a still wet colour.(Wet-in-wet)
sm refers to the term "smallest amount"

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Swans at Rest


Standard Notes:
Planning the painting: This is very important!
First read through all the notes - mentally paint the picture before proceeding - analyse the source picture above - and PLEASE be aware of the colour mixes you are about to apply to each area, and the order in which they are applied, try visualising the result. Will the brush you are about to use carry enough colour - have you mixed enough colour - is the mix too strong or too weak? Try it out on your - trial pad!

Application of washes.
This should be quick using as few strokes as possible to cover any area being worked on. A minimal amount of brush-strokes equals greater purity and translucency of colour. Too much dabbing and scrubbing when applying the colour kills its freshness.

Basic Mixing Method.
More water in the wash gives a pale or weak wash, more colour produces a stronger wash. Most mixes require only two colours, one will be darker than the other. Mix sufficient quantity of the lighter colour and just keep adding small quantities of the darker colour until you feel happy with it, keep checking your progress on your trial pad.

1 The Sky/background notes:
Having read through the notes to familiarise yourself with the applications.
First mix the required amount of colours,
A medium to pale strength wash of #3Winsor Blue;
A mix of #9 and #2 for the Light Green.
A mix of #6 and #2 for the Light Brown.
Turn the board upside down, see below.

Don't apply the shadows on the swans until stage 4.

2 Application:
Tilt your board at just a medium angle. This will allow the applications to flow more slowly down.
Using a size 12 brush to first apply clean water, starting at the top left, down to where the brown starts and also at the top right down to the same level.
Start applying the Winsor Blue wash, maintaining
a loaded brush work quickly around the swans from both sides and proceed down and off the sheet.
While still wet introduce the [LG] with positive downward strokes, followed quickly by the [LB]

Visual aid to the strokes:

Positive strokes applied quickly without fussing in a downward motion first the green and then the brown.
Then quickly tidy-up around the swans a more accurate outline can be achieved later when all is dry if you feel it's necessary.
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