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#1 - Alizarin Crimson
#2 - French Ultramarine
#3 - Winsor Blue
#4 - CeruleanBlue
#5 - Raw Sienna
#6 - Light Red
#7 - Burnt Umber
#8 - Naples Yellow
#9 - Winsor Yellow
#10 - Neutral Tint

[DC] - Dark Cloud = 6+10
[ML] - Mauve Lilac = 2+ 1 [*see note]
[BG] -Basic Green = 9+ 3
[DG] - Dark Green = 9+ 3+2
[MS] - Mountain Shadow = 2 + 1 + 6+10
[LG] - Light Green = #4+ #5

cw refers to the term "charge with" meaning to introduce a colour into a still wet colour.(Wet-in-wet)
sm refers to the term "smallest amount"

Click for a larger picture
Mountain Scene


Application of washes.
This should be quick using as few strokes as possible to cover any area being worked on. A minimal amount of brush-strokes equals greater purity and translucency of colour. Too much dabbing and scrubbing when applying the colour kills its freshness.
Basic Mixing Method.
More water in the wash gives a pale or weak wash, more colour produces a stronger wash. Most mixes require only two colours, one will be darker than the other. Mix sufficient quantity of the lighter colour and just keep adding small quantities of the darker colour until you feel happy with it, keep checking your progress on your trial pad. I will try to create and present a chart of basic colour mixes (each being two colour mixes) Lilac is most common and rather difficult to achieve .see [*note] >

Planning the painting: This is very important!
First read through all the notes - mentally paint the picture before proceeding - analyse the source picture above - and PLEASE be aware of the colour mixes you are about to apply to each area, and the order in which they are applied, try visualising the result. Will the brush you are about to use carry enough colour - have you mixed enough colour - is the mix strong or weak? Try it out on your - trial pad!

[*note] on Lilac or [ML] Mauve Lilac
From the feedback I've received mixing this colour seems to require a comment. When mixing two colours where one is much darker than the other, I would always mix sufficient quantity of just the pale colour adding the darker colour by small amounts until the correct tone and hue are achieved, continually using my test pad. However when both colours are dark, you need to decide which has the most intense staining quality. In this instance I feel that #1[Alizarin Crimson] is far more intense than #2 [French Ultramarine] so first mix sufficient #2 and add very small amounts of #1 until Lilac is reached, it's better to be too blue than violet. Try it out on your - trial pad!

Colour mixes required:
.Mix a weak/pale wash of #8 Naples Yellow which will be applied first.
.Mix a weak/pale wash of #6 Light Red which will be applied second
Mix a wash of #3 Winsor Blue medium strength (better too pale than too strong).
For the darker cloud colour mix a pale wash of #10 Neutral Tint and add a small amount of #6 Light Red
Too much Light Red will give a mucky brown colour, too much Neutral Tint will give an oppressive grey/black look to the clouds.
Click here to see large sky picture.
The Application:
Wet in wet application required..
Turn picture up-side down. The sky is the first application and needs to be achieved quickly with no fussing - if any area is allowed to begin drying or even losing the glossy wet look, the required wet in wet effect will not take place.. (If you are unsure mix enough colour to have a quick practice run) Pale Naples Yellow applied first , then very pale Light Red introduced sparingly as wet in wet.. Slightly stronger than pale Winsor Blue added in the appropriate areas. To mix the darker cloud colour use a pale wash of Neutral Tint and add a small amount of Light Red. Use your trial pad keep adding water and colour in the mix until the required strength is achieved. (Too much Light Red will give a mucky brown colour, too much Neutral Tint will give an oppressive grey/black look to the clouds. The darker cloud colour can now be introduced to the left side of the picture and also sparingly to the other couple of areas as can be seen clearly on the large sky picture.

The Lake and River
Wet in wet application required..
Use the same colours to paint the lake and the river. The sky picture.shows where best to apply the appropriate colours.

The Shadow on the Mountain
This next stage is the shadow on the mountains and represents the lightest areas of those shadows, in fact it will become the snow on the mountain that is in shadow. First mix sufficient pale Lilac, the mix is achieved using a wash of medium strength ultramarine with a very small amount of Crimson Alizarin, into this add a small amount of the previously mixed darker cloud colour. Apply to the areas indicated on the Large picture - also add to the lake and river using horizontal strokes, this can also be seen on the Large picture..

The green areas:
Colour mixes required:

. The basic green colour mix is created using Winsor Yellow adding Winsor Blue until the correct strength and shade of Green is achieved. Just keep adding small quantities of Blue until you feel happy with it, keep checking your progress on your trial pad. Take a portion of this mix and put it in another well in your palette and add a little French Ultramarine, this will give you a textured green to be added wet in wet where necessary into the paler green.
.Mix a wash of Raw Sienna with a little Light Red this should be a medium to pale strength, it will also be added wet in wet into the basic green.
The Application:

Start the Green application with the tree line, bring the colour down to the base line of the trees, leaving a reservoir of colour which will maintain its wetness. Be pretty quick, this colour should not be allowed to start drying before the meadows are applied. Into this wet green introduce the mix of Light Red and Raw Sienna across the top of the meadow bring the colour down to just above the edge of the lake.

On the near side of the lake start with your green mix that contains the Ultramarine, just a narrow strip ( which will create a dark contrast with the lake) but wet enough to allow the wet in wet addition of the lighter green and the Raw Sienna/Light Red mix, leave gaps where the shrub breaks through as a vertical intrusion through the green of the river bank. The river banks in the foreground use the basic paler green add the other colours you have mixed as wet in wet look at the picture for Guidance when adding the other colours.


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